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Japanese clusters, a broad concept

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In Japan, the definition of cluster is not as restricted as in France or Europe. One can find some cluster organisation that closely match their Western counterparts, where an independent institution promotes and supports cooperation between companies, R & D centers and universities within the same region and in their international activities. But most Japanese clusters consist of an R & D center coordinating various local players in the realization of a specific research project, and are meant to disappear once their task is completed. Communication networks, thematic or covering diverse sectors, can also be called clusters, as well as regions with a high concentration of companies within a given sector of activity, even when they lack a coordination entity. For their internationalization, these « industrial clusters » rely on METI regional offices or on the Japan External Trade Organization  (JETRO), whether it be for the organization of participation in international fairs, the signature of Memorandum of understanding (MOU), etc. In 2016, there were more than fifty clusters in Japan, some thirty of them developing biotechnology-related themes (pharmaceuticals, healthcare, medical […]

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